Exploring the Psychological Impact of Urbanization on Mental Health Across Different Socioeconomic Strata: A Cross-Sectional Survey

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Muhammad Osama
Basit Ali Nasir


Urbanization, a hallmark of contemporary society, has profound implications for mental health, varying significantly across socioeconomic strata. This cross-sectional survey study assessed the mental health outcomes of 300 urban residents, stratified by income and education levels and access to green spaces. Participants from low-income backgrounds reported higher stress (mean = 19.89), anxiety (mean = 14.39), and depression levels (mean = 9.81) compared to their high-income counterparts (mean stress = 18.16, anxiety = 14.58, depression = 8.85). Regression analysis indicated that tertiary education significantly enhanced mental well-being (Coef. = 2.95, p = 0.034), suggesting that educational attainment is a protective factor against urban stressors. However, access to green spaces did not show a significant impact on mental well-being, potentially due to variability in utilization and perception.

The study's strengths included a robust sampling strategy and the use of validated psychological tools, enhancing the reliability and generalizability of the findings. Limitations included the cross-sectional design, which precluded causal inferences, and potential self-report biases. Despite these limitations, the study provides valuable insights into the mental health disparities in urban environments, emphasizing the need for targeted interventions to support vulnerable populations.

The findings underscore the importance of considering socioeconomic factors in urban mental health strategies and invite further exploration into the quality and utilization of urban green spaces. This research contributes to a nuanced understanding of the mental health impacts of urbanization, informing policymakers and urban planners on developing more equitable and supportive urban environments.

Article Details

Author Biographies

Muhammad Osama, Superior University

Lecturer, Department of Physiotherapy, Superior University

Basit Ali Nasir , Al-Nasir Pain care & Rehab Center Faisalabad.

CEO & Physiotherapist at Al-Nasir Pain care & Rehab Center Faisalabad.